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1. According to Robert Cialdini’s article on protecting the environment, there are two types of norms: _______ norms (which refers to what people typically do) and _______ norms (which refers to what people typically approve or disapprove).

  •     
  • group; individual
  •     
  • injunctive; descriptive
  •     
  • individual; group
  •     
  • descriptive; injunctive

2. People who score high on a scale of _______ try to be what others expect them to be.

  •     
  • self-monitoring
  •     
  • social loafing
  •     
  • self-esteem
  •     
  • self-efficacy

3. As mentioned in one of the video lectures, psychologists and psychology textbooks generally focus on two types of empathy: _______ (which involves perspective-taking) and _______ (which involves emotional matching).

  •     
  • self-serving; group-serving
  •     
  • central; peripheral
  •     
  • outrospective; cathartic
  •     
  • cognitive; affective

4. Of the following factors, _______ is most often cited as “very important for a successful marriage,” according to research discussed in the lecture on Romantic Attraction and Close Relationships.

  •     
  • agreement on political issues
  •     
  • adequate household income
  •     
  • fair division of household chores
  •     
  • shared religious beliefs

5. In games of chance (e.g., to see who rolls the highest score with dice), people bet more when playing against a nervous opponent than when playing against a confident opponent—a clear example of:

  •     
  • Behavioral confirmation
  •     
  • The availability heuristic
  •     
  • An illusion of control
  •     
  • Self-monitoring

6. _______ refers to the belief that other people are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are.

  •     
  • Self-serving attributions
  •     
  • The spotlight effect
  •     
  • The illusion of transparency
  •     
  • Impact bias

7. Philip Zimbardo developed a model of deindividuation in which certain “input variables” lead to certain “output behaviors.” Which factor below is an input variable in Zimbardo’s model?

  •     
  • Anonymity
  •     
  • Boredom
  •     
  • Unhappiness
  •     
  • Frustration

8. Research using the experimental procedure developed by Solomon Asch in the 1950s has found that conformity levels are highest among people living in:

  •     
  • Individualist cultures—especially women
  •     
  • Collectivist cultures—especially women
  •     
  • Collectivist cultures—especially men
  •     
  • Individualist cultures—especially men

9. Suppose you’re the only person to perform well on a variety of tests across many occasions. According to Harold Kelley’s attributional framework, people will probably make a dispositional attribution for your success on the basis of low distinctiveness, _______ consistency, and _______ consensus.

  •     
  • low; high
  •     
  • high; low
  •     
  • high; high
  •     
  • low; low

10. If you want survey results to be representative of a particular population, it’s best to use _______ to make sure that everyone in the population being studied has an equal chance of being included in the research.

  •     
  • demand characteristics
  •     
  • random assignment
  •     
  • random sampling
  •     
  • mundane realism

11. According to Professor Plous, the best available evidence suggests that if Stanley Milgram’s controversial research on obedience could be conducted today, the level of obedience found would probably be _______ what Milgram found in the 1960s.

  •     
  • somewhat higher
  •     
  • somewhat lower than
  •     
  • approximately the same as
  •     
  • much lower than

12. Research on the _______ effect has found that people often like a facial photograph that someone else has taken of them _______ than a reversed image of the same photograph.

  •     
  • under-exposure; more
  •     
  • mirror exposure; more
  •     
  • mere exposure; less
  •     
  • over-exposure; more

13. As explained by Professor Jerry Harvey in an assigned video, the Abilene Paradox occurs when group members are in _______ with one another and _______.

  •     
  • agreement; fear separation from the group
  •     
  • agreement; believe they’re smarter than other group members
  •     
  • conflict; believe they’re smarter than other group members
  •     
  • conflict; don’t care about the needs of other group members

14. Although the Stanford Prison Experiment is a classic study in social psychology, it took place before modern-day ethical guidelines and has never been replicated. Indeed, if Professor Plous were to propose a “Wesleyan Prison Experiment” identical to the original study, his university’s Institutional Review Board would reject the proposal, because the Stanford Prison Experiment:

  •     
  • Generated negative emotions among participants
  •     
  • Led people to behave in ways that they later regretted
  •     
  • Did not allow participants to choose their role (prisoner or guard)
  •     
  • Did not obtain “informed consent” from the participants

15. Correlational research is very useful, but it cannot tell us with certainty whether a score on one variable tends to:

  •     
  • Remain unchanged when the score on another variable increases
  •     
  • Decrease when the score on another variable increases
  •     
  • Increase when the score on another variable increases
  •     
  • Cause a change in the score on another variable

16. Professor Dumbledore wants to randomly assign 40 students in equal numbers to live in one of four dormitories: Gryffindor, Hufflepuff, Ravenclaw, or Slytherin. If Professor Dumbledore uses Research Randomizer, the best approach would be to generate _______ in which 1=Gryffindor, 2=Hufflepuff, 3=Ravenclaw, and 4=Slytherin.

  •     
  • 40 sets of 4 unique numbers ranging from 1 to 4
  •     
  • 40 sets of 4 non-unique numbers ranging from 1 to 4
  •     
  • 10 sets of 4 non-unique numbers ranging from 1 to 4
  •     
  • 10 sets of 4 unique numbers ranging from 1 to 4

17. Manuela used to love mountain climbing, and she would often describe mountain climbing as “the safest fun there is.” After a widely publicized mountain climbing accident in her country, however, Manuela decided that the chances of death were too high to continue mountain climbing. Manuela’s change in perception is most likely a function of:

  •     
  • Regression toward the average
  •     
  • The availability heuristic
  •     
  • The misinformation effect
  •     
  • Mundane realism

18. When Juan’s boyfriend broke up with him, Juan thought he’d be too upset to date anyone for at least a year. A month later, however, Juan began dating someone he met at a local coffee shop. Juan’s overestimation of how long it would take him to recover emotionally is an example of:

  •     
  • Impact bias
  •     
  • Attitude inoculation
  •     
  • Misattribution
  •     
  • Social facilitation

19. Susie wants to earn a Course Certificate in this class, so she cheats and thinks to herself, “Everyone else is probably cheating too, so I’m not doing anything wrong.” Social psychologists would say that Susie’s overestimation of cheating is an example of:

  •     
  • Self-handicapping
  •     
  • Defensive pessimism
  •     
  • The false uniqueness effect
  •     
  • The false consensus effect

20. Barnabus is a door-to-door salesperson. After he persuades Emerson to buy a set of kitchen knives, he mentions that there is a $10 charge called the “sales completion fee.” Instead of refusing, Emerson agrees to pay the extra fee. Social psychologists refer to the compliance tactic that Barnabus used as the:

  •     
  • Foot-in-the-door technique
  •     
  • Door-in-the-face technique
  •     
  • Knife-in-the-back technique
  •     
  • Low-ball technique

21. If you’re like most of the people studied by social psychologist Michael Norton, you’ll experience the greatest happiness by:

  •     
  • Spending $5 on a coffee for yourself
  •     
  • Depositing $20 in a bank savings account for your future
  •     
  • Spending $20 on concert tickets for yourself
  •     
  • Spending $5 on a coffee for someone else

22. Bryant is on a banana diet and wants to persuade his friends Chris and Vinny to join him. If Chris doesn’t like bananas but Vinny does, Bryant should use _______ with Chris and _______ with Vinny.

  •     
  • attitude inoculation; yellow fever inoculation
  •     
  • a two-sided appeal; a one-sided appeal
  •     
  • demand characteristics; complementarity
  •     
  • a one-sided appeal; a two-sided appeal

23. Luna chose to attend her cousin’s high school graduation ceremony instead of her best friend’s 21st birthday party. Bored at the ceremony, Luna thought to herself, “I don’t think the party would have been much fun anyway.” Luna’s thought was most likely a result of:

  •     
  • Predecisional dissonance
  •     
  • Informed consent
  •     
  • The planning fallacy
  •     
  • Post decisional dissonance

24. Suppose Gitanjali lays out four cards in front of you, each with a drawing of a fruit on one side and an animal on the other side, and the cards facing up show a bright red apple, a large orange, a happy dog, and a beautiful cat. Gitanjali then tells you that any card with a red fruit on one side has a dog on its opposite side. Which of the four cards are potentially capable of showing that Gitanjali is wrong?

  •     
  • Only the card showing an apple
  •     
  • Only the card showing an apple and the card showing a dog
  •     
  • Only the card showing an apple and the card showing a cat
  •     
  • All four of the cards

25. Suppose that 10 years from now, Coursera has grown so large that it’s become a country with its own team playing in the World Cup. In a match against Germany, the teams are tied with one minute left in the game, and Coursera’s star player scores a goal that leads Coursera to win. Which statement made by the German goalie would show counterfactual thinking?

  •     
  • “If only I had been a little faster, we’d have won!”
  •     
  • “We’re still the better team!”
  •     
  • “Oh, well—I never wanted to win in the first place!”
  •     
  • “It is all my fault that we didn’t win!”

26. Maya is part of a six-student group trying to make her college campus more environmentally sustainable. To be most productive, her group will probably do best if members work:

  •     
  • Briefly in pairs and then work longer as a single group
  •     
  • Briefly as a single group and then work longer on their own
  •     
  • The whole time in pairs (two-person subgroups)
  •     
  • The whole time together as a single group

27. When Irma sees her child Horace start to steal an apple from a grocery store, she’s privately amused but slaps Horace on the hand to teach him that it’s wrong to steal. In social psychological terms, this slap is a form of:

  •     
  • Evaluation apprehension
  •     
  • Instrumental aggression
  •     
  • Hostile aggression
  •     
  • Displacement

28. Niu explains his failing grade of “F” on a biology test as the result of the exam room being too hot (a situational explanation), but a classmate says it’s because Niu is “dumb as an ox” (a dispositional explanation). What social psychological dynamic would account for the gap between their opinions?

  •     
  • Attitude inoculation
  •     
  • Behavioral confirmation
  •     
  • Actor-observer differences in attribution
  •     
  • Self-handicapping

29. The outgroup homogeneity effect occurs even when members of two groups, such as females and males, have extensive contact with each other.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

30. When Professor Plous ate an apple in one of the lecture videos, he said that even though “alive” and “dead” are useful words, life and death actually form a continuum rather than being mutually exclusive categories.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

31. When group-serving biases take place, people tend to see their own group as inferior to other groups, and they tend to excuse or explain away negative behaviors committed by outgroup members.

 

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

32. In their groundbreaking research on bystander intervention, Bibb Latané and John Darley concluded that bystanders may be influenced more by situational factors than by their previous experience or personality.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

33. People who score high on a scale of masculinity are, on average, more likely than other people to exhibit the bystander effect.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

34. Research suggests that suicide bombers who are about to join a terrorist organization tend to be much more religious than other people their age who live in the area.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

35. Research on the catharsis hypothesis shows that playing violent video games is usually an effective way to reduce anger and aggression.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

36. After traveling around the United States with a young Chinese couple for two years, sociologist Richard LaPiere (1934) reported that he rarely observed anti-Chinese racial discrimination.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

37. A key difference between Leon Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance and Daryl Bem’s theory of self-perception is that self-perception theory involves a state of inner tension and physical discomfort.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

38. An example of self-handicapping behavior is getting extra sleep the night before an important exam.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

39. In his conformity research using a line judgment task, Solomon Asch found that participants conformed in the direction of a unanimous majority on more than 90% of all “critical trials.”

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

40. In one of the assigned videos, Professor Dan Gilbert of Harvard University said that when people in a health club were asked whether they’d rather have food or water during a two-day stay in the woods, they chose water more often before exercising than after exercising.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

41. In the classic Prisoner’s Dilemma, the worst outcome for each prisoner occurs if they don’t confess to the crime and the other prisoner does.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

42. In general, people are more likely to marry others who are different from them in personality, needs, and physical attractiveness than others who are similar to them.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

43. One effective way to prevent groupthink is by welcoming the input of a dissenter who encourages critical evaluation and stimulates original thinking.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

44. Even though racial differences in appearance can seem large, the amount of genetic variation among human beings is small compared to the variation within species such as penguins and fruit flies.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

45. Compared with women, men tend to be faster at falling in love and slower at falling out of love.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

46. In their study on the situational factors that influence helping behavior, John Darley and Daniel Batson (1973) found that helping was not significantly affected by whether students were about to give a speech on the Parable of the Good Samaritan.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

47. Ronald Comer and James Laird (1975) found that when people who expected to eat a dead worm were later given a choice between eating the worm or judging the weight of different cups, most people chose to eat the worm.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

48. When negotiation expert William Ury speaks of “the third side” in a conflict, he’s referring to the surrounding community that isn’t aligned on one side or the other of the dispute.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

49. In his replication of Stanley Milgram’s famous obedience studies, Jerry Burger (2009) found that men were ten times more likely than women to administer the highest level of electric shocks.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

50. Researcher John Gottman has found that marriages are likely to remain happy and healthy as long as wives and husbands have at least one positive interaction with each other for every negative interaction they have with each other.

  •     
  • True
  •     
  • False

 

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