1. What do you understand by the term “Bio-Technology”?
Bio-Technology is a process where a team of scientists researched and worked together and uses this method to enhance the nutrition level of the food, good production of the food, safety and to retain the taste of the food. In this methodology, they use fewer pesticides and improve crops.
2. What does GMO stands for and what importance does it has in bio-technology field?
This is more of a technical question, applicant should have studied well in this field to answer this question, GMO means genetically modified organism where in two different genetics and molecule is used and combined to create one new genetic organism. This is usually done by using genetic engineering techniques.
3. What are the problems we could face by using this genetic engineering tools?
By using genetic engineering tools, all the plants and crops are exposed to too many pesticides and herbicides, they are over used to maintain it fresh and to retain the taste of the food. Traditionally farmers avoid using so many pesticides for crops, they use them liberally.
4. What are the different types of bio technology? Explain.
The different types of bio technology are: Red bio-technology, White bio-technology and Green bio- technology.
Red Bio Technology is usually used in medical devices like antibiotics.
Green Bio Technology is used in agricultural process to grow crops more environmental friendly.
White Bio Technology is used mostly in industrial process like using a chemical reaction designing an organism.
5. What is (LMO) Living Modified Organism?
Living Modified Organism means any living organism which contains genetical material in it by using modern bio technology. It could be sterile, injections or virus.
Usually in Bio-Technology interviews, applicants will be asked to handle a seminar about their main scientific subject.
In this scenario, applicant should check before with the HR as to who will be the audience and what the exact skill sets are they are looking for to fill this position. This will help the applicant do a research on it before hand and can get fully prepared for a seminar. The applicant should make sure that the presentation is well prepared, executed and tailored to audience. Make sure, you give them good introduction about your subject but talk in brief and do not go in detail. Talk more about their company and business press. Find out if they have any competitors and do research on them. You could talk about adopting their style of working for any improvement in this company.
6. What would be your role in the organization for being a part of bio-technology team?
As a member of bio-technology team, its my responsibility to go to the lab and do a surprise check on the samples produced, keep updating myself from the company presentations and websites…on the other streams or new products coming up in new pharmacy industries. Pro-actively communicate with the operations team on the ongoing experiments in the industry.
7. What are the challenges you face being in this industry and how do you overcome it?
The future of life science is changing; the companies need to come creatively each time and try new research on different products genetically and to retain its essence and source of it. Researching on different products in the market, and researching the scientific methods used for it would help us in updating ourselves and facing the new challenges of this bio-technology industry.
8. What do you mean by bio ethics?
Bio ethics is the combination of analysis of social, political, ethical and environmental consequences and implications of bio technology and bio – medicine products.
9. What are the possible dangers that bio technology and bio medicine faces on the advanced scientific methods of food products?
Applicant should be very confident in his answer as this is a very tricky question, he/she should answer that any technology or advancement has its own advantages and dis advantages, it is just the way the technology is adapted and used in the process. Yes, of course there is a certain degree of risk involved, but we have to deal with it being in this scientific bio technology industry. As any industry will face this quality or failure problem.
10. What do you think could be the points of conflict in terms of bio ethics?
Well, I think there will be problem with people’s interest with respect to abortion, genetic advances, right to privacy, rights of a child, capacity to make personal decision in their food habits asthere will be question raised for genetically injected or used products with these bio-technology methods. I think we should continue to convince people by explaining the scientific approach in the interest of retaining the good products in future and maintaining a better environment.
11. Is body itself a bio technology?
Yes, it has to be articulated as a technology. But not by nature, once its articulated or framed in such a way, then definitely it’s a technology. Anything which is re-framed from a naturally occurring bio logical process is called bio technology.
12. What do you mean by bio-media?
It’s a concept which means to describe the informatic reframing or biological components and its methods and processes. Its all about the process of identifying biologically and looking through the lens of informatic.
13. How is this bio technology useful in our day to day life?
Bio technology is used to help in solving the problem faced in our daily products. Yogurt, wine, cheese, and antibiotics these are all not new for human beings. This method of bio technologypromises a better way of retaining the essence and preventing disease.
14. How is the concentration of drugs in human plasma defined?
Some drugs bind extensively to plasma proteins (Warfarin binds 99%) whereas others have virtually no binding.
Extraction depends on the type of drug - there are different standard techniques for acidic, basic, and neutral drugs - and, indeed, some drugs need specific extraction techniques.
It is important for you doing bioequivalence studies to know exactly the proportion of drug extracted but such controls are again specific for each drug and use specific marker compounds.
15. Why is buprenorphine less addictive than other opioids (like fentanyl) - is it explainable by its strength of binding to the common receptor, or?
Buprenorphine is what is referred to as a partial agonist - i.e. it binds to the receptor but even at its maximum cannot give as much of an effect as a full agonist (such as morphine) - it is, thus, also a partial antagonist (partially inhibits the actions of full agonists).
As addiction is likely to be linked to strength of the effect of the drug, buprenorphine has less effect and, therefore, less addiction.
16. Is Phenoxyethanol harmful?
Phenoxyethanol is harmful and can be absorbed through the skin - official sites for toxicity data, however, show little toxicity in man and some toxicity (irritation) with high doses in animals. Phenoxyethanol is in cosmetics as a bactericide (kills bacteria).
17. What is the definition of “Biomedical”? What topics cover the Study of Biomedical Sciences?
The term "biomedical" covers a vast range of subjects - everything that relates biology to medicine. This can range from the obvious like Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Genetics to the less obvious like Botany (most drugs were originally derived from plants and, thus, these is a big science called Phytopharmacology).
18. Do you know how the dose for children is being estimated based on preclinical data?
There are a number of ways of estimating children's doses from preclinical (adult) data - often depends on the therapeutic index of the drug in question (the wider the therapeutic window the less accurate the child's dose needs to be). Sometimes straight weight-basis i.e. 7kg child gets 1/10 dose of 70kg adult.
More accurate (so they say) is a dose based on body surface area (child's surface area is greater in proportion to its body weight than an adult is). There are normograms to calculate surface area from weight and height of child.
All of these may be wrong if clearance of drug in child is significantly different from adult e.g. different metabolism or different route of clearance.
19. Which type of immunoglobulin level will increase when an individual is exposed to a parasite?
Serum IgE levels will increase and remain until the parasite is washed out from the body.
20. What are allergens?
Allergens are non-parasitic antigens. They are capable of stimulating hypersensitive reactions in allergy conditions in an individual.
21. Name some common allergens associated with type-I hypersensitivity.
Penicillin, sulfonamide, eggs, milk, dust mites, animal air, vaccines etc.
22. What is atopy?
The tendency to manifest localized anaphylactic reactions is called atopy.
23. Who are atopic individuals?
Atopic individuals are those who are having abnormal high levels of circulating IgE and more than normal number of oesinophils.
24. Where do most allergic reactions occur?
Most of them occur on mucous membrane. Allergens enter the body by the process of inhalation or ingestion.
25. What is P-K reaction?
The response produced when an allergen is injected into an individual, who is sensitive is called P-K reaction.
26. What are high affinity receptors?
Mast cells and basophils express high affinity receptor. The high affinity enables it to bind with IgE, despite low serum concentration of IgE.
27. What are low affinity receptors?
Low affinity receptors play role in regulating he intensity of IgE response.
28. What are primary mediators?
Primary mediators are those, which are produced before degranulation. These primary mediators are stored in granules. Some of the primary mediators are histamine, heparin, proteases etc.
29. What are secondary mediators?
Secondary mediators are produced after target cell activation or released by the break down of phospholipids membrane during the process of degarnulation. Some of the secondary mediators are leukotrienes, various cytokines, prostaglandins etc.
30. Explain in brief about histamine
It is formed by the decarboxylation of amino acid histidine. It accounts for 10% of granule weight. This histamine binds to specific receptors on various target cells.
31. How many types of histamine receptors are there and what are they?
There are three types of histamine receptors. They are H1, H2 and H3.They has different tissue distributions.
32. What is the reaction-taking place when H2 receptor binds to mast cells and basophils?
When H2 binds to mast cells and basophils it suppresses degranulation.
33. Explain in brief about leukotrienes and prostaglandins
Leukotrienes and prostaglandins are formed only when the mast cell undergo degranulation and enzymatic break down of phospholipids in the plasma membrane.
The effects produced by them are more pronounced and long lasting than histamine. Leukotrienes mediate mucous production and bronchoconstriction. Prostaglandin D2 causes bronchoconstriction.
34. Explain in brief about cytokines
Cytokines activate inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and eosnophils.IL-5 is important in activation of eosnophils, IL-4 increases IgE production by B-cells. IL-4, Il-5, IL-6, TNF-a has been secreted by human mast cells.
35. What is atopic dermatitis?
Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease. This disease is observed frequently in young children. There will be skin eruptions.
36. What is erythroblastosis fetalis?
It is a hemolytic disease, which develops in newborn. Maternal IgG antibodies cross the placenta and destroy the red bleed cells. This develops when an Rh+ expresses an Rh antigen on blood cells that the mother does not express.
37. What is a rhogam?
Is an antibody that binds to any of the blood cells, enter the mother’s blood circulation, and facilitate their clearance by activation of B-cells and memory cell production.
38. What is type I hypersensitivity?
It is IgE mediated hypersensitivity. Typical manifestations include asthma, food allergies, eczema, hay fever etc.
39. What is type II hypersensitivity?
It is IgG mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity. Typical manifestations include erythroblastosis fetalis, hemolytic anemia, blood transfusion reactions etc.
40. What is type III hypersensitivity?
It is immune complex mediated hypersensitivity. Typical manifestations include rheumatoid arthritis, serum sickness, necrotizing etc.
41. What is type IV hypersensitivity?
It is cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Typical manifestations include graft rejection, dermatitis etc.
42. What is serum sickness?
When an individual is exposed to foreign serum antigen then a combination of symptoms are produced which is called as serum sickness.
43. Give some symptoms of serum sickness.
Symptoms include fever, weakness, rashes, with erythema and edema. Serum sickness depends on the immune complexes formed and the size of the complexes.
44. Name some Infectious diseases.
Some of the Infectious diseases are Malaria, meningitis, trypanosomiasis, hepatitis etc…
45. Name some autoimmune diseases.
Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, good pasture’s syndrome
46. How many types of hypersensitive reactions are there?
There are four types of hypersensitive reactions, they are:
Type I hypersensitive reaction
Type II hypersensitive reaction
Type III hypersensitive reaction
Type IV hypersensitive reaction
47. What are the steps in bacterial infection?
There are four steps in bacterial infection. They are:
Attachment to host
Invasion of host tissue
Toxin-induced damage to host cell
48. What is the disease caused by Rotavirus?
The disease caused by rotavirus is infantile diarrhea.
49. What is the disease caused by Sabia virus?
50. What is the disease caused by Ebola virus?
Ebola haemorrhagic fever.