Palladium is a chemical element that has an atomic number 46. Its relative atomic mass is 106.42 g/mol and it is represented by the symbol Pd. In the periodic table, it is in group 10 and period 5. Its electronic configuration is 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6, 4d10 in short ([Kr] 4d10). It has 46 electrons, 46 protons and 60 neutrons.

Palladium is solid at STP and has a density of 12.023 g/cm3. The density of palladium is less than other metals of the platinum group: Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium. Palladium melting point is 1828.05 K ?(1554.9 °C, ?2830.82 °F) and its boiling point is 3236 K ?(2963 °C, ?5365 °F). Its electronegativity is 2.20 (Pauling scale) and its oxidation states are 0, +1, +2, +3, +4 mostly forming basic oxides. The energy for the first ionization required is 804.4 kJ/mol.

Palladium has six stable isotopes in which Palladium-106 has more abundance 27.33%. There are 23 radioisotopes of Palladium. It was discovered and isolated by an English chemist William Hyde Wollaston in1802. Palladium was named after the asteroid Pallas. Palladium has a silvery-white appearance.

Palladium is found in minerals like polarite and cooperite. Russia is the top producer about 39% are produced in Russia. South Africa, Canada, and U.S are also producing a significant amount of Palladium. It is also produced in nuclear fission reactors but there is no reprocessing facility for high-level radioactive waste.

Palladium has a wide range of applications.

It is used in a number of different reactions as a catalyst.

Palladium is used in dentistry and watchmaking.

It is used in aircraft spark plugs as well as in Jewellery.

It has a high resistance to corrosion, it is used in electrical contacts and surgical instruments.

Palladium is used in catalytic converters.

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Why is palladium so expensive?


The main reason for being expensive is its rarity. It is a rare noble metal that is hard to find in abundance. In 2006 its overall mine production was 208,000 kilograms of which 82,000 kilograms were produced by Russia. Countries that have Palladium ores are controlling their production and market through supply and demand. But the overall reason for being expensive is its rarity.


How many atoms are present in 0.375 moles of palladium (Pd) atoms?


As we know that,

1 mole = 6.02214076×10²³ atoms


 0.375 mol Pd/1 X 6.02214076×10²³ atoms/ 1 mol Pd


Calculate the equation and we will get 2.258×10²³ atoms.