Praseodymium is a chemical element that has an atomic number (Z) 59. It is in period 6 and a third member of lanthanide. The atomic mass of praseodymium is 140.907 g/mol and it is represented by the symbol Pr. It has a white silvery colour. Praseodymium is an f-block element and has 59 electrons. Its electronic configuration is 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d10, 4s2, 4p6, 4d10, 5s2, 5p6, 4f3, 6s2. Theoretically, five electrons of praseodymium which are in 4f3, 6s2 acts as valence electrons but it needs extreme conditions to use all five electrons. mostly it gives three or four electrons. The electronegativity of Praseodymium is 1.13 (Pauling scale). Its oxidation states is 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5. Praseodymium is a monoisotopic element. There is one naturally occurring stable isotope of Praseodymium and that is Pr-141.
Praseodymium is a soft and ductile metal. It is solid at STP and has a density of 6.77 g/cm3. Its melting point is 1208 K ?(935 °C, ?1715 °F) and its boiling point is 3403 K ?(3130 °C, ?5666 °F).
Praseodymium was discovered by an Austrian scientist Carl Auer von Welsbach in 1885.
Praseodymium is found in minerals like cerite, bastnäsite and monazite. Praseodymium is found in Earth's crust with an abundance of 9.1 mg/kg. This makes it the fourth-most abundant element among Lanthanides. The complexity of extraction makes it rare commercially.
It is used in magnets in combination with other rare elements. Praseodymium magnets are known for their strength and durability. When alloyed with nickel it produces the magnetocaloric effect. Which is used in refrigeration working below absolute zero temperature. Its alloy with magnesium is used in aircraft engines because of creating high-strength metals. Praseodymium is used in didymium glass for making welder's goggles. It is also used in glass colouring mostly yellow.
What is praseodymium used for?
- Powerful magnets:
It is used in magnets in combination with other rare elements. Praseodymium magnets are known for their strength and durability. It is used in wind turbines.
- Magnetic refrigeration:
When alloyed with nickel it produces the magnetocaloric effect. Which is used in refrigeration working below absolute zero temperature.
- Safety glasses:
Praseodymium is used in didymium glass for making welder's goggles.
- Aircraft engine:
When it is mixed magnesium in small quantity it produces a high strength metal that is used in aircraft engines.
- Glass colouring:
Its compounds give a unique colouring when used in glass and ceramics. It is used mostly for yellow colouring.
Where is praseodymium found?
Praseodymium is called rare earth element but it is not rare as the perception is. It has an abundance of 9.1 mg/kg in Earth's crust. It is the fourth-most abundant elements of lanthanides. It is found in minerals like monazite, bastnäsite and cerite. Major producers of praseodymium are China, the USA, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka and Australia.
Where was praseodymium discovered?
Praseodymium was discovered in 1185 by an Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach.