Carbon has 4 electrons in its valency. It is a tetravalent atom and can make up to 4 bonds. The electronic configuration of carbon is 1s2, 2s2, 2p2. There are four electrons available in the outer shell which form covalent chemical bonds.

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Where does carbon dioxide come from?

Carbon dioxide comes from different sources. The respiration of plants and animals are producing carbon dioxide which is a natural process. This is a part of the carbon cycle. But there is a rapid increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Which comes from the continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution. Coal, petroleum and natural gas burning is the leading cause of man-made CO2. The carbon atoms releases from the fossil fuel are reacting with the oxygen in the air forming CO2. Deforestation is another cause of increasing CO2 because plants consume a lot of CO2 for photosynthesis. Volcanic activity is also adding CO2 to the atmosphere.

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What is activated carbon?

Activated carbon also called activated charcoal. It is produced from carbonaceous source materials like coal or wood. It has very small pores which increase its surface area for chemical reaction and absorptions. Due to the high degree of microporosity, one gram of activated carbon can have a surface area of 32,000 sq ft. Usually, it is produced through the pyrolysis of wood, or coal. Wood or coal is burned in the absence of oxygen at a temperature of 600-900 °C. The carbonized material is then exposed to oxygen or steam at temperatures above 250 °C.