Carbon is a chemical element with an atomic number (Z) 6. It is represented by a symbol C. It is a p-block element having six electrons, six protons, and six neutrons. Chemically it is a nonmetallic element. In the periodic table, it is located in the 2nd period and in group-14 (Carbon group).  The electronic configuration of the Carbon atom in its ground state is [He] 2s2 2p2. There are some 15 isotopes of carbon of which 3 of them are naturally occurring C-12. C-13 and C-14. Carbon-14 is a radioisotope and has a half-life of 5,730 years.

Carbon has a black metallic color (graphite) and a clear white color (Diamond) depending on the arrangement of atoms. The atomic mass of carbon is 12.00 amu. Carbon was known to Egyptians and Sumerians but as an element, it was recognized by Antoine Lavoisier. It is solid at standard temperature and pressure.  By mass it the 4th abundant element in the universe, 2nd in the human body, and 15th in the Earth's crust.

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How many valence electrons does carbon have?

 There are 4 electrons in the valency of a carbon atom. Carbon is a tetravalent atom. The carbon atom has 6 electrons. The electronic configuration of carbon atom in its ground state is 1s2, 2s2, 2p2. Two electrons are in the 1s orbital, two in 2s, and the remaining two are in the 2p orbital.