Table of Contents
Lead is a chemical element that has an atomic number (Z) 82. It has an atomic mass of 207.2g/mol and it is represented by the symbol Pb ( Latin; Plumbum). It is a p-block element that can be found in group 14 and period 6 of the periodic table. It has 82 electrons, protons and 125 neutrons. The electronic configuration of Lead is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. Its oxidation states are −4, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4 but mostly +2 and +4. Its electronegativity is 2.33 (+4) and 1.87 (+2). The energy required for 1st ionization is 715.6 kJ/mol and for 2nd 1450.5 kJ/mol. It has four stable isotopes Pb-204, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208.
It's a heavy metal with a metallic grey appearance. It is soft and malleable. When cut and exposed to air it tarnishes. At STP it is in solid-state and has a density of 11.34 g/cm3. Its melting point is 600.61 K ?(327.46 °C, ?621.43 °F) and its boiling point is 2022 K ?(1749 °C, ?3180 °F).
Historically lead was used in different parts of the world but there is no exact account of who and when it was discovered. Lead beads were found in Asia minor which is dating back to 7000–6500 BCE. Different civilizations used it at different times for different purposes.
Lead has a relative abundance of about 14 ppm in Eath's crust. It is found in zinc ores. Lead's minerals are cerussite, anglesite, boulangerite and galena. China is the leading producer of lead followed by Australia, Russia, America and India.
Lead has a wide range of applications such as construction, plumbing, batteries and bullets etc.
Lead has an abundance of 14 ppm in Earth's crust. It is found in ores of zinc and silver. Some are the minerals of lead which is mined in different parts of the world. They are cerussite, anglesite, boulangerite and galena. The most commonly mined mineral for lead is Galena. It is also an important source of Silver.
The symbol for the element Lead is Pb which is from the Latin word Plumbum.
The discovery of Lead is unknown. Lead beads were found in Asia minor which is dating back to 7000–6500 BCE. In Ancient Egypt, it was used in cosmetics. The greek the roman and the Chinese also used this element but in an impure form. The Indus Valley civilization and the Mesoamericans also used it.