Manganese is a chemical element with an atomic number (Z) 25. It is represented by the symbol Mn. It is a transition metal found in the mineral form mostly with iron. It is very hard to find in the free state because of reactivity. It has a standard atomic mass of 54.938. In the periodic table, it is in group 7 and period 4, it is a d-block element. The electronic configuration of manganese is 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d5. There are 25 electrons, 25 protons and 30 neutrons. At standard temperature and pressure, it is in a solid state. Its melting point is 1519 K ?(1246 °C, ?2275 °F) and its boiling point is 2334 K ?(2061 °C, ?3742 °F).

The electro negativity of Manganese is 1.55 (Pauling scale). The oxidation state of manganese is −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7 depending on the bonding atom's oxidation state and electro negativity. There are 25 radioisotopes of Manganese one isotope is a stable and naturally occurring isotope, Manganese-55.

Manganese was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1774) and it was first isolated by Johann Gottlieb Gahn.

Manganese is a silvery-grey metal mostly used in stainless steels for its strength and anti-corrosive nature. It is the 12th most abundant element on earth's crust. It is obtained from its ores. It has a wide range of uses in metallurgy. It is used in steel and Aluminium alloying. It is used as an additive (Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl) in gasoline to boost octane number. Manganese compounds are used in the colouring and pigmenting of glass and ceramics.

In biochemistry, it is found as a cofactor in many enzymes such as lyases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, transferases, and hydrolases etc.

what is manganese used for.jpg

What is manganese used for?

Manganese has a wide range of uses most of which are in metallurgy. It has an anti-corrosive nature which makes it a good choice for stainless steel production.

Another application for Manganese is Aluminium alloys. An increase of Manganese in Aluminium alloys drastically increase its strength.

Manganese(IV) oxide is used in brown pigment for paint and in dry cell battery.

It is used in the glass and ceramics industry for colouring.

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl is used in gasoline to improve octane number and reduce engine knocking.


How many valence electrons does manganese have?

Manganese has seven valence electrons.


Who discovered manganese?

Manganese was first isolated by Swedish chemist Johann Gottlieb Gahn and it was discovered by German-Swedish chemist  Carl Wilhelm Scheele.