The Defeat of Napoleon And Congress of Vienna 1815:
The old system of Europe was disturbed by the Napoleonic wars which were based on the balance of power. After defeating Napoleon the European monarchs come with the idea of re-establishing the old system. Napoleon erases the old boundaries of Europe through conquest and liberal nationalism. One of the main tasks for the congress of Vienna was to re-draw the old map. A major fraction occurred over the disposition of Poland and Saxony. The conflicting claims of Sweden, Russia, Denmark, and the adjustment of the German states.
During the War Poland and Saxony were allied with Napoleon. When the war ended Russia wanted almost all of Poland and Prussia wanted all of Saxony. The make Austria anxious that these states would become too powerful and could be a threat to Austria in the future. Russia and Prussia supported each other in voting. Britain and Austria oppose it. The result was a deadlock and an opportunity for France. The French ambassador proposed a solution by siding with Austria and Britain if they allow France to the inner circle. Which means they will also have one vote. The secret treaty of Vienna was signed between Britain, Austria, and France agreeing that they would go to war if Russia and Prussia try to annex Poland and Saxony. The tsar heard of this secret treaty and he agreed to compromise.
All this was done by France but the irony is that Poland vanished from the scene. The main decision was made by the four power later France was added. Congress of Vienna is criticizing for its unfair treatment of smaller states. Some of its territories were divided among the big four. Some historians phrased the statesmanship at Congress whose work prevent another major War. It was an attempt to create an international order which was based upon consensus rather than conflict. The great powers regularly meet and try to establish a balance of power through cooperation. The Congress of Vienna created a model for the League of Nations (1919) after WWI and for the United Nations (1945).